The European Union’s regulatory framework for biological agriculture (BioAg) products, including biocontrol (Biopesticides), biostimulants, and biofertilizers, is facing increasing scrutiny due to lengthy administrative requirements. These regulations are hindering the development and commercialization of these innovative agricultural solutions within the EU, which is an issue that demands immediate attention.
Biological agriculture, often referred to as BioAg, encompasses biocontrol (biopesticides) for crop protection, biostimulants for crop enhancement, and biofertilizers for crop nutrition. This sector is one of the fastest growing in agriculture, offering sustainable alternatives to traditional agrochemicals. However, the journey of these products to the market in Europe is being impeded by regulations that are arguably out of touch with the unique nature of biological solutions.
Crop protection has historically relied on agrochemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers, to combat pests and manage plant health. However, this approach comes at a steep cost, with global crop losses due to insects and diseases amounting to a staggering $270 billion, according to the FAO. More than $235.6 billion is spent annually on pesticides and fertilizers worldwide, as reported by Markets & Markets in 2023. Furthermore, the indiscriminate use of toxic chemicals has led to over 500 species of insects, mites, and spiders developing resistance to pesticides.
In the EU, the negative impact of many pesticides on human health and the environment has led to the banning of most of the Pesticide Action Network’s ‘dirty dozen’ pesticides, although the highly hazardous herbicide paraquat remains in use. This has created a void in pest control solutions, which biological alternatives are well-suited to fill.
The Global Biological Agriculture Market
The global market for biological agriculture products, comprising biocontrol, biostimulants, and biofertilizers, reached $12.9 billion in 2022 and is projected to expand to $24.6 billion by 2027, with an impressive compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.7% (Markets and Markets, 2022). Within this market, biocontrol, which includes bioinsecticides, biofungicides, bionematicides, bioherbicides, and more, accounted for $5.5 billion in 2022 and is expected to reach $11.3 billion by 2027, with a CAGR of 15.6%. Bioinsecticides dominate this segment, constituting 50% of the market. Meanwhile, biostimulants were valued at $3.5 billion in 2022 and are forecasted to reach $6.2 billion by 2027 with an 11.8% CAGR. Biofertilizers, with a market value of $2.6 billion in 2021, are projected to grow to $4.5 billion by 2026, boasting an 11.9% CAGR (Markets and Markets, 2022).
The growth of this sector is crucial as the world grapples with the need for increased food production to sustain a growing global population while concurrently phasing out toxic chemical pesticides.
Biocontrol: A Safer Alternative
Biocontrol solutions have gained popularity due to their safety and specificity compared to conventional pesticides. They have minimal to no adverse effects on human health, non-target organisms, and the environment. These solutions are effective in small quantities and decompose rapidly, leaving no harmful residues. Consequently, they hold significant promise as an integral part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies aimed at sustainable agriculture.
Challenges in Biocontrol Regulations
In the EU, biocontrol products are subjected to the same regulations as chemical active substances, despite being fundamentally different. Biocontrol products contain living microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, and their assessment should consider the unique characteristics and potential harm to beneficial insects, rather than solely focusing on environmental toxicity. Unfortunately, the complexity of EU-based biocontrol regulations has resulted in fewer biocontrol products being registered compared to other regions such as the United States, India, Brazil, and China.
The registration process for biocontrol products is also time-consuming and costly, with single registrations of new agents costing between $10-15 million. This hinders the commercialization of innovative solutions.
Experiences of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
The biocontrol sector is predominantly composed of micro-SMEs, often founded by academics and scientists with groundbreaking ideas. These small businesses are essential for fostering innovation in the agricultural sector. However, the current regulatory landscape in the EU, characterized by complexity and high costs, presents a formidable barrier to the survival and growth of these enterprises.
Faster registration procedures and enforced time limits are imperative to enable these innovative products to reach the market more swiftly. A streamlined regulatory system should empower small and medium enterprises to develop and provide reliable tools for economical pest control, meeting the expectations of consumers and contributing to a more sustainable agricultural future.
The Way Forward
Biocontrol products offer a safer alternative to chemical pesticides, with less risk to humans and the environment. Regulators should not equate biocontrol products with their chemical counterparts. Emphasis should be placed on discovering new microbial control agents and optimizing formulation and delivery methods to enhance their effectiveness and consumer satisfaction.
As the European Green Deal aims to reduce the use and risk of chemical pesticides by 50% by 2030, biocontrol products have a pivotal role to play. However, the current lengthy and costly EU registration process must be reformed to ensure that biocontrol products can fill the gap left by banned toxic chemical pesticides.
The recent regulatory reform efforts in the UK post-Brexit, led by the World Bioprotection Forum, serve as a model for change. Their authoritative white paper and engagement with UK parliamentary authorities highlight the need for a more efficient and sustainable regulatory system than the EU’s, which often takes 6-10 years for products to reach the market. It is imperative for regulators in the EU to follow suit and create a regulatory environment that allows biocontrol products to swiftly enter the market, aligning with the EU’s commitment to reducing pesticide use by 50% by 2030.