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The Leatherjacket Crisis in UK Turf: Challenges and Innovations in Pest Management

The Growing Threat to Green Spaces

The serene greens of golf courses, racecourses, football fields, and bowling greens are under an unprecedented threat. The culprit? Larvae of the cranefly, commonly referred to as leatherjackets. With over 303 species of cranefly in the UK, the larvae of these insects wreak havoc, burrowing into the earth and feasting on the roots of grass, causing significant damage to the turf. This issue has escalated into a major concern for greenkeepers and turf managers across the country, directly impacting the quality of sports surfaces and challenging their professional expertise.

The Post-Chlorpyrifos Era

The severity of the leatherjacket infestation has surged notably following the 2016 ban of Chlorpyrifos, a key chemical previously used in controlling these larvae. Before the ban, finding up to 30 larvae per square meter of turf was common. Today, that number has skyrocketed to 100 and 600 larvae per square meter in some areas. Removing Chlorpyrifos from the arsenal of greenkeepers has left a significant void in effective pest management strategies, exacerbating the challenge of maintaining healthy turf. However, this crisis also presents an opportunity for innovation and the development of sustainable solutions that can ensure the long-term health of our green spaces.

Mental Health Impacts

The relentless battle against leatherjacket larvae has taken a toll on the mental well-being of turf managers and greenkeepers. The inability to effectively control the pest, coupled with the pressure to maintain pristine playing surfaces, has increased stress and anxiety among professionals in the field. This issue underscores the urgent need for effective, sustainable solutions that can address the pest problem without adding undue pressure on those responsible for turf maintenance, aligning with our shared commitment to environmental stewardship.

Current Control Measures and Limitations

While some control methods are available, including chemical treatments and the use of entomopathogenic nematodes, these solutions have significant limitations. Nematodes, for instance, require specific conditions to be effective, including temperatures above 12°C, careful application, and subsequent watering. These constraints limit their utility, especially in the UK’s variable climate, often rendering them an impractical solution for many.

Bionema’s Innovations

In response to this growing crisis, companies like Bionema have been at the forefront of developing practical, sustainable solutions for pest management on turf. Led by Dr. Minshad Ansari, a world-renowned expert in biological solutions with over 25 years of experience, Bionema has focused on harnessing the power of biopesticides, biostimulants, and biofertilisers. Through extensive research and hundreds of field trials, Bionema has demonstrated the efficacy of these biological solutions in managing pests and enhancing plant health under real-world conditions.

Biofilm Microbial Solutions

One of Bionema’s key innovations is the development of biofilm microbial solutions. These products target pests, directly boosting soil health and reducing turf stress, making the grass more resilient to pests and diseases. This approach aligns with the adage that a healthy body can better resist disease, applying the same principle to turf management. By improving the overall health of the turf, greenkeepers can reduce the incidence of pests and diseases, leading to more robust, more resilient playing surfaces.

The Proactive Approach

Dr. Ansari advocates for a shift towards more proactive turf management practices. Instead of reacting to pest infestations, he suggests that greenkeepers adopt preventative measures, including microbial solutions, to maintain the health of their turf. This approach helps control current pest problems and prevent future outbreaks, ensuring the long-term sustainability of green spaces.

The Future of Turf Management

The battle against leatherjacket larvae in the UK is ongoing, but there is hope with the continued development of biological solutions and a shift towards proactive turf management. Bionema’s work, especially in biofilm technology, is garnering attention both in the UK and globally, offering a glimpse into the future of pest management. As more greenkeepers and managers adopt these innovative solutions, the industry can look forward to healthier turf, reduced pest problems, and decreased environmental and mental health impacts associated with traditional pest control methods.


The leatherjacket crisis has highlighted the need for sustainable, effective pest management strategies in the UK’s turf industries. While the challenge is significant, the innovations and solutions being developed provide a path forward. By embracing biological solutions and adopting a more proactive approach to turf management, the industry can overcome this challenge, benefiting not only the health of the turf but also the well-being of those who care for it. As Dr. Ansari’s work demonstrates, the future of turf management is not just about controlling pests but about creating ecosystems where healthy turf can thrive and be resilient to the challenges ahead.

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